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An Explanation For Black Holes Based On Newtonian Physics And The Experiences Of Everyday Life.

September 23, 2011


This is the second in the series of hypothetical letters Newton would have written to Einstein if they had met and discussed relativity earlier. In his first letter, “Newton” unified relativity with Newtonian Physics using the velocity of time as the unifying commonality. In this letter, “Newton” accounts for black holes, white holes and wormholes of astronomy based on Newtonian Physics, the experiences of everyday life, and the constancy of the inertial velocity of time. The explanation presented here for these phenomena defers radically from the currently accepted hypothetical explanation but it preserves Einstein’s mathematics of relativity. The advantage of this new explanation is that it enables accounting for all of relativity based on Newtonian Physics and on the fact that black holes occur everywhere, eliminates paradoxes and uncertainties from physics and enables advancement of physics to its next level of development. Einstein’s currently accepted explanation based on the primary constancy of the velocity of light, does not permit this.

My Dear Professor Einstein;

In my last letter, we unified special relativity with Newtonian Physics using the constant invariant inertial velocity of time as the unifying commonality. We recognized the fact that the velocity of time works by fixing as a constant, event durations, durations required by instruments using beams of light, to perform measurements, and the durations required by optical phenomena to occur and for signals to transmit information from events to observers. Fixation of event durations as constants, fixes as a constant the velocity of light, as a secondary phenomenon, during transfer of information by light signals between inertial frames. The advantage of this, apart from its being the biological truth, is the fact that it preserves the mathematical integrity of relativity while it enables accounting for relativity based on Newtonian physics. In this letter, we shall see how we can account for white holes, black holes and wormholes based on Newtonian Physics and the experiences of everyday life. In my next letter, I shall account for the Michelson-Morley Experiment and all of relativity based on one fact, the fact that black holes occur everywhere and cause paradoxes and uncertainties.

To discover the explanation for black holes and all other “relativistic phenomena” based on my “Newtonian Physics,” we must first define the common algorithm I used to discover calculus and the laws of “Newtonian Physics” that bear my name, and you used to discover relativity. This algorithm is ACTINEMAS, the algorithm for making all discoveries. It is the ultimate commonality shared by everything in life. ACTINEMAS, is the commonality we must eventually use to unify everything, all the information in existence, into a bio-physical theory of everything. Fortunately, we do not have to define this algorithm, because Trivikram has already done it for us and recognized it as being "ACTINEMAS", and its shortcut, ASET. Trivikram has accounted for relativity based on Newtonian Physics by starting at the very beginning of everything, by starting with how we understood our first concept when we were babies. In this letter, we shall begin by studying astronomy using ACTINEMAS, and account for white holes, black holes and wormholes, based on Newtonian Physics. In the next one, we shall account for the Michelson-Morley Experiment and the rest of relativity based on white holes, black holes, wormholes and the constancy of the velocity of time.

ACTINEMAS is to biology and everything else in life what calculus is to mathematics. ACTINEMAS is an intellectual problem-solving, question-answering comprehension-enabling tool that can solve problems, answer questions and enable comprehension of matters we cannot solve, answer or comprehend any other way. ACTINEMAS works by requiring us to use all the faculties possessed by our bodies and our minds every time we think about anything or do anything. It requires us to look at, listen to and feel what we are dealing with in three ways. First, using our raw or unaided senses organs, second, using instruments that enhance the ability of our sense organs to perceive, (and that includes the use of mathematics as an instrument for perception and discovery the way Einstein did). Finally, it requires us to look at listen to and feel everything that we cannot see, hear and/or feel with our sense organs, our instruments or by using mathematics, by performing thought experiments like the ones you performed to discover relativity in the first place. To perform these thought experiments, we must ask and answer the questions; “what would things we cannot see, hear and/or feel, look like, sound like and/or feel like if we were able to see, hear and/or feel them? While answering these questions, we must remember a fundamental fact-of-life and fact of theoretical physics and metaphysics, the fact that the attributes of things we cannot see, hear and/or feel will be the opposite of the attributes of things we can see, hear and/or feel.

Now we shall answer the question, how can we account for and understand white holes, black holes and wormholes of astronomy using the principles of Newtonian Physics and experiences of everyday life, by looking at, listening to and “feeling” the sky every way we can by using the steps of ACTINEMAS. As we shall see, we will have to use only the first six steps of ACTINEMAS to do this because stars are things we can see with our eyes. Mother Nature has written the answer to this question across the sky. The problem is that she has not written it in any of the languages we use to communicate with one another or in mathematics, the language of physics, but in ACTINEMAS, the algorithmic language our minds and our bodies use to communicate with one another. You were able to “read” this information and express it in mathematical terms vicariously, using relativity, because you had discovered and used the steps of ACTINEMAS without realizing that this is what you had done. Proof or this is the fact that we will get ACTINEMAS if we express the steps you took to discover relativity as an algorithm, as Trivikram has shown in his website and his book; “My Journey to ASET.” If we want to translate your mathematics of relativity into one of the languages we use to communicate with one another and make sense, we will have to use ACTINEMAS to read the sky and/or decipher the mathematics of your relativity into a spoken language.

1. The first step of ACTINEMAS that we must take to account for white holes, black holes and wormholes, requires us to look at the sky with our naked eyes. So let us begin by looking at a star in the night sky. Let us suppose that this star is one light year away. This means that the light from this star took one year to travel from the star to our eyes. The image of the star we are seeing is one year old. It tells us what the star looked like one year ago, not what it looks like today. If that star had exploded and disappeared sometime during the last year, we will not see that explosion for another year to come. In the mean time, we will continue to see a star in an area where there is no star, for a whole year. In the year that passed, assuming the star did not explode, the velocity of the star carried it away to an area of space in which we will see nothing for a year to come because light from the new location of the star will take one year to reach our eyes. Therefore, the “star” we are seeing, is just a “blob” of light or a “white hole.” There is no material star in the area where we see it. This observation should end the controversy as to whether white holes exist or not. Every star we see in the sky is essentially, a white hole!
2. The second step of ACTINEMAS requires us to validate the information we obtained by looking at the sky, by listening with our ears to the sounds coming from the source of what we saw. Since we cannot listen to stars with our ears, we must determine if we can listen to them vicariously. The best way of doing this is by listening to a supersonic jet plane crashing the sound barrier because light and sound have a lot in common. They are both examples of wave transmission. Both have sources and observers, both travel at inertial velocities and require “durations of transmission” to travel from their sources to the observer. In addition, sound travels slowly and carries information from source to observer in slow motion. Since light travels faster than sound, the model of the supersonic plane that produces both sound and light, enables us to use light to study what happens to sound transmission and perception when relative motion occurs between a moving source of sound and light, and the observer. We can then deduct by extrapolation, what happens with light transmission and perception under similar circumstances. Here is what we will see and hear upon observing the flight of the supersonic jet. First, we will see a plane fly overhead at a great speed but we will hear no sound because the plane, flying faster than sound, will arrive overhead, before its sound reaches our ears. The plane literally flies away from its sound! It “becomes dissociated” or separated from it. Next, we will hear an explosion, the sonic boom, when the “Dopplerized” sound, sound that is literally, “a collapsed ball of sound,” caused by the flight of the plane reaches our ears. The sound will apparently come from an area in space where the plane crashed the sound barrier. We will see no plane or other cause for the sound in the area where we head the explosion. Now let us imagine what would happen if the plane were to travel at a velocity approaching the velocity of light. The velocity of the plane will carry its body dark away from its image in the time light takes to travel from the plane to the eyes of the observer. The body of the plane flies away from its image to become a lightless “dark matter,” leaving behind its image as a flash of light, a “white hole!” We will be able to detect the “lightless” dark body of the plane by a method that uses touch for detection such as collision between the body of the plane and another solid object in an area where a second object was not visible.
3. The third step of ACTINEMAS requires us to validate and/or confirm what we have seen and heard, during the first two steps, by feeling what we saw and heard, by touching with our fingers, because the sense of touch gives us the most reliable information. It tells us how and why information obtained by looking and listening may be unreliable, what we can and cannot accept as being true, and what is happening “in reality.” Anything we can touch and feel is true. Touching is the most reliable way of obtaining information because we (our fingers) are in contact with what we are feeling. Physical contact reduces to zero the distance information has to travel to reach us. The duration of transmission required by information to travel the distance also becomes zero. This makes the reliability of information obtained by touch to tend towards infinity. Since we cannot feel stars, white holes, sounds and flying supersonic planes with our fingers, we have to feel them vicariously using our minds by performing thought experiments and asking and answering the question, what would we feel if we were able to feel what we are seeing and hearing. Fortunately, in astronomy, we have an additional way of “feeling” things vicariously. That is by detecting (feeling) gravity. Even though we cannot feel a star with our fingers, if we can detect (feel) its gravity in an area, we can conclude that there is a star there and if we cannot detect gravity in an area, we can conclude that there is no star there. The pull of gravity is like a “long imperceptible stick” that acts like an extension of our fingers. It extends to the stars and bonds with them. The “long imperceptible stick” of gravity enables stars to “latch on” on things like orbiting planets and “hold on” to them from great distances and at the same time, it acts in reverse, like an imperceptible stick we can use to poke and feel stars from great distances. The “imperceptible stick” of gravity enables gravity to exercise “action-at-a-distance.” This “imperceptible stick” essentially eliminates the effects of distance in perception using gravity, making it equivalent to touching to meet the requirements of ACTINEMAS. When we depend on light and sound for perception, distance between the observer and the observed introduces the factors of “duration of transmission” and “aging of information” into the equation. This, in turn, causes problems with information we obtain using light and sound perception by making them “age” as the travel from source to observer. As we shall eventually see, this “aging of information in transit” is the fundamental source of all paradoxes and uncertainties in science. In perception using gravity, even though the distances involved are large, the value of the duration of transmission tends towards zero because “the imperceptible stick of gravity” eliminates its effects. This makes information obtained by detecting gravity as reliable as information obtained by touching. Since the velocity of stars carries them away from their white holes, there will be no star detectable by gravity where we see white holes. Gravitational pull provides the most accurate information regarding the location of a star, unlike information provided by light originating from it. Subatomic particles that leave the star at the same time as its light will arrive on earth along with the light from its white hole and mislead unsuspecting observers into thinking that they originated somehow from an area of space where there was no matter detectable using gravity. Now we have an explanation as to why subatomic particles seem to originate from white holes, based on Newtonian Physics. If we intellectually grope around the surroundings of a white hole, or feel for gravity, we will eventually be able to “touch” feel, and find the lightless body of the star. This “body of the star” will be literally hiding in plain sight as a mass of “dark matter” a mass that has all the material attributes of a star except for the fact that we cannot see any light coming from it. The velocity of the star has literally dissociated it from its image the way the supersonic plane flew away from its sound. Now we know how that dark matter exists and how they form. The fact is that a mass of invisible dark matter exists for every star we can see in the sky as a white hole. This should end controversies surrounding the existence and the source of dark matter.
4. The fourth step of ACTINEMAS requires us to look at the sky using instruments that enhance our ability to see. Let us begin by using a convertible as an instrument! Let us get into a convertible and look at the sun during the day, or the moon and the stars at night, and drive. When we are “at rest,” the sun, moon and the stars seem to be “at rest” with us. When we drive, the sun, moon, and the stars follow us everywhere! They follow us at the velocity with which we are moving and in the same direction! They follow us as though they were “balloons of light,” tethered to us by “rigid sticks.” To understand why this happens in terms of Newtonian Physics and the biology of perception, we must remember that the sun, moon and the stars that we see are the white holes of these objects, not the objects themselves as we have already established. In the case of the sun and the moon, since they are relatively close to us, their white holes and their dark bodies almost share the same space. The constancy of the velocity of time fixes as a constant, the duration of transmission, the time light requires to travel from their sources, the sun, moon and the stars to us, the observers, as a constant for each heavenly body, and for each individual observer, as all these bodies are in inertial motions with their own inertial velocities. As the velocity of time fixes the duration of transmission as a constant primarily, it fixes the velocity of light as a constant secondarily. The duration of transmission becomes, like gravity, an imperceptible “rigid stick” that bonds the white holes of the sun, moon and the stars to the eyes of the observer and this is what makes the sun, moon and the stars follow us wherever we go. The mathematical effect of the constancy of the velocity of time in relativity is identical to the mathematical effect of the constancy of the velocity of light. The difference is that the former will enable comprehension of matters that are incomprehensible using the constancy of the velocity of light as the primary constant. The constancy of the velocity of time is also the reason why Maxwell found that the velocity with which light travelled from the moons of Jupiter to the earth to be the same for all the moons. The biological explanation for this is the fact that the images the observer sees are images that form on the retinae of their eyes. The “rigid stick” of time bonds such images to the retinae of the eyes of the observer literally, once they land upon them, and once that happens, they move with the observer, not with their source. The next instrument we must use to look at the sky is the telescope. When we look at the sky with telescopes one of the things we see is the black hole. To understand why we see black holes, we must ask ourselves what would happen if the velocity of the dark matter of a star were to carry it into the path of light heading our way from the white hole of a more distant star. The background illumination provided by the second white hole will enable us to see the dark body of the first star as a “black hole.” This should end the controversy regarding the existence of black holes. Every star could have a black hole associated with it because every body of dark matter could become visible as a black hole under the right circumstances.
5. The fifth question we must answer now is; “why do white holes look larger than stars and why do black holes look so small?” To answer this question, we have to use our minds as instruments that enable us to hear things we cannot hear and “listen” to white holes and black holes and recognize the fact that they are to seeing, what the Doppler Effect is to hearing. Black holes and white holes are to light perception what the Doppler Effect is to the perception of sound such as that emanating from the supersonic plane as it crashes the sound barrier. “Dopplerization” of the sound of the plane does three things to it. It makes the sound louder, it eliminates characteristics of the sound so that it sounds like an explosion and not like a plane any more, and it does not move with the plane. The white hole is the visual equivalent of the sonic boom. It is a “flash or explosion” of light. It will not look like the star that caused it. It will be larger and more intense than the star that caused it. It will not move with the star. This is why we cannot see stars move. In fact, we cannot see motion of anything occurring at great distances, as motion. We see it as blurring. The blurred images of stars are larger than stars because of the Doppler Effect that causes “Dopplerization,” or blurring of the image of moving objects at large distances. Blurring occurs with relative motion between the source of the image and the surface on which the image forms because relative motion causes multiple images of the source to form and overlap over an area larger than the size of the image would have been in a focused image. Black holes are smaller than stars because they are images of lightless objects resulting from background illumination. As the image of the white hole that provides background illumination for the black hole is blurred and enlarged, it encroaches on the image of black hole that is really a “negative image” and makes it smaller. The gravitational pull of a black hole is considerably larger than what one would expect from its observed size because the black hole is a star that looks smaller because blurring of an image caused by background illumination makes it smaller. This explains why a tiny black hole that seem to be the size of a football field, has the gravitational pull of a star. This should end the controversy as to whether black holes exist. They do and there is a logical explanation based on Newtonian Physics as to why we see them, for their size, and for the magnitude of their large gravitational pulls.
6. The sixth step of ACTINEMAS requires us to confirm the last conclusion by feeling black holes and white holes with instruments that augment our ability to feel them. The only “instruments” we have to do this are gravity, mathematics and our minds. We have already “felt” white holes and black holes with gravity and with our minds and you have already determined the relationships between the sizes and the gravities of black holes by using the mathematics of relativity. The final answer to the question as to what a black hole will feel like is that it will feel as though it was the size of the star responsible for it. I shall conclude this letter by adding that wormholes are streaks of Dopplerized (blurred) light that seem to connect white holes to black holes, visible when images of black holes and the white holes associated with them are in close enough proximity for the three Dopplerized images to overlap marginally on the photosensitive surface on which the observer perceives them.

Since we have accounted for white holes, black holes and wormholes based on Newtonian Physics and the experiences of everyday life, we have met the goal we set ourselves for this letter. I shall stop here. I shall take the remaining three steps of ACTINEMAS in my next letter. They will account for all the evidence that verifies the validity of special relativity based on Newtonian Physics, black holes, white holes, wormholes and the constancy of the velocity of time.

Until then, I remain,

Yours hypothetically,

“Isaac Newton”

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